What is called Internet Protocol (IP) ?

IP ADDRESS.

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An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to every device connected to a network that usest he Internet Protocol for communication.

An IP address serves two main functions: host or network interface identification and site addressing.

Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) defines an IP address as a 32-bitnumber.

However, due to the expansion of the web and therefore the depletion of obtainable IPv4 addresses, a replacement version of IP using 128 bits for the IP address, was developed in 1995 and standardized in December 1998.

In July 2017, a final definition of the protocol was published. IPv6 deployment has been ongoing since the mid-2000s.

IP addresses are usually written and displayed in human-unreadable notations, like 172.16.254.1 in IPv4, and2001:db8:0:1234:0:567:8:1 in IPv6.

The dimensions of the routing prefix of the address is designated in CIDR notation by suffixing the address with the amount of serious bits, e.g., 192.168.1.15/24, which is like the historically used subnet mask 255.255.255.0.

The IP address space is managed globally by the web Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), and by fiveregional Internet registries (RIRs) responsible in their designated territories for assignment to finish users and native Internet registries, such asInternet service providers.

IPv4 addresses are distributed by IANA to the RIRs in blocks of roughly 16.8 million addresses each. Each ISP or private network administrator assigns an IP address to every device connected to its network.

Such assignments could also be on a static(fixed or permanent) or dynamic basis, counting on its software and practices.

Function

An IP address serves two principal functions. It identifies the host, or more specifically its network interface, and it provides the situation of the host within the network, and thus the potential of building a path thereto host.

Its role has been characterized as follows: "A name indicates what we seek. An address indicates where it's.

A route indicates the way to get there."Theheader of every IP packet contains the IP address of the sending host, which of the destination host.

IP version

Two versions of the web Protocolare in common use within the Internet today.

The first version of the web Protocol that was first deployed in 1983 within the ARPANET, the predecessor of the web , is Internet Protocol version 4(IPv4).

The rapid exhaustion of IPv4 address space available for assignment toInternet service providers and user organizations by the first 1990s, prompted the web Engineering Task Force (IETF) to explore new technologies to expand the addressing capability within the Internet.

The result was a redesign of the web Protocol which became eventually known asInternet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) in 1995. IPv6 technology was in various testing stages until the mid-2000s, when commercial production deployment commenced.

Today, these two versions of the web Protocol are in simultaneous use. Among other technical changes, each version defines the format of addresses differently.

Due to the historical prevalence of IPv4, the generic term IP address typically still refers to the addresses defined by IPv4.

The gap in version sequence between IPv4 and IPv6 resulted from the assignment of version 5 to the experimental Internet Stream Protocol in 1979, which however was never mentioned as IPv5.

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